Graupel and hail terminal velocities: Does a "supercritical" Reynolds Number apply?

AMS Citation:
Heymsfield, A. J., and R. Wright, 2014: Graupel and hail terminal velocities: Does a "supercritical" Reynolds Number apply? Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 71, 3392-3403, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-14-0034.1.
Resource Type:article
Title:Graupel and hail terminal velocities: Does a "supercritical" Reynolds Number apply?
Abstract: This study characterizes the terminal velocities of heavily rimed ice crystals and aggregates, graupel, and hail using a combination of recent drag coefficient and particle bulk density observations. Based on a nondimensional Reynolds number (Re)-Best number (X) approach that applies to atmospheric temperatures and pressures where these particles develop and fall, the authors develop a relationship that spans a wide range of particle sizes. The Re-X relationship can be used to derive the terminal velocities of rimed particles for many applications. Earlier observations suggest that a “supercritical” Reynolds number is reached where the drag coefficient for large spherical ice-hail-drops precipitously and the terminal velocities increase rapidly. The authors draw on observations and model simulations for slightly roughened large ice particles that suggest that the critical Reynolds number is dampened and that the rapid increase in the terminal velocity of smooth spherical ice particles rarely occurs for natural hailstones.
Peer Review:Refereed
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OpenSky citable URL: ark:/85065/d7qc04gc
Publisher's Version: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0034.1
  • Andrew Heymsfield - NCAR/UCAR
  • Robert Wright
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