Gultepe, I., and Coauthors, 2014: Ice fog in Arctic during FRAM-Ice Fog Project: Aviation and nowcasting applications. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95, 211-226, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00071.1.
|Title:||Ice fog in Arctic during FRAM-Ice Fog Project: Aviation and nowcasting applications|
|Abstract:||Ice fog and frost occur commonly (at least 26% of the time) in the northern latitudes and Arctic regions during winter at temperatures usually less than about –15°C. Ice fog is strongly related to frost formation--a major aviation hazard in the northern latitudes. In fact, it may be considered a more dangerous event than snow because of the stronger aircraft surface adhesion compared to snow particles. In the winter of 2010/11, the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling–Ice Fog (FRAM-IF) project was organized near Yellowknife International Airport, Northwest Territories, Canada, with the main goals of advancing understanding of ice fog microphysical and visibility characteristics, and improving its prediction using forecast models and remote sensing retrievals. Approximately 40 different sensors were used to measure visibility, precipitation, ice particle spectra, vertical thermodynamic profiles, and ceiling height. Fog coverage and visibility parameters were estimated using both Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. During this project, the inversion layer usually was below a height of 1.5 km. High humidity typically was close to the ground, frequently producing ice fog, frost, and light snow precipitation. At low temperatures, snow crystals can be swept away by a very low wind speed (∼1 m s−1). Ice fog during the project was not predicted by any forecast model. These preliminary results in the northern latitudes suggest that ice fog and frost studies, over the Arctic regions, can help us to better understand ice microphysical processes such as ice nucleation, visibility, and parameterizations of ice fog.|
|Subject(s):||Cloud Physics, Severe Weather|
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|OpenSky citable URL:||ark:/85065/d7pg1sp1|